Ghana is located in West Africa, has a population of around 28 million people and is classified as a low middle income country.
In the medium term, the economic outlook for Ghana is good, since the oil and gas export has led to an increased productivity. In the short term, however, Ghana faces significant challenges. According to data from the World Bank, GDP growth has declined significantly since 2013. 2016 saw the fifth consecutive year of decreasing GDP rates (from 14% in 2011 to 3.6% in 2016). In 2016, the service sector has the highest share of GDP (52.2%) followed by industry (28.2%), which mainly consists of mining, manufacturing and construction and agriculture (19.6%). With around 5.8% in 2017, Ghana has a relatively low unemployment rate. However, some 80 % of the employment is generated in the informal sector.
In the Corruption Perception Index of 2017, Ghana ranked 81st out of 180 countries. This marks a significant increase of perceived corruption in comparison to the previous year. According to the Global Corruption Barometer 2017, a survey conducted by Transparency International and the Afrobarometer, petty corruption in the public sector is still a major problem in Ghana. The majority (64%) of Ghanaians believe that corruption has increased over the past year.
Ghana has ratified the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC), the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption and the ECOWAS Protocol on the Fight Against Corruption (ECOWAS Protocol), which was adopted at the regional and sub-regional levels respectively. In 1993, the Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice (CHRAJ) was established. It is assigned with investigating alleged violations of human rights, including corruption of public officials and with taking action to remedy proven violations. The Economic and Organised Crime Office (EOCO) is the second main anti-corruption body in Ghana and is in charge of monitoring and investigating economic and organised crime, and - on the authority of the Attorney general – of prosecuting such offenses. The latest initiative is the National Anti-Corruption Action Plan 2012-2021 (NACAP) which comprises Ghana’s national framework to determine anti-corruption activities. Thanks to the incorporation of the NACAP into national development planning, the plan is an integral part of the regular annual activities of public institutions. It also includes activities in the private sector, which are carried out by the Private Enterprise Foundation (PEF).
In order to fight complicated bureaucracy and institutional bottlenecks, which according to Transparency International represents a huge risk for corruption, the Ghanaian Parliament established the Office of the Special Prosecutor in 2018. As a specialised agency, the new office investigates specific cases of corruption involving public officers, politically-exposed persons as well as individuals in the private sector implicated in corrupt practices and to prosecute these offences on the authority of the Attorney-General.
|Population:||28 million inhabitants||GDP per capita:||1,513.5 US$ (2016)|
|Form of government:||Presidential democracy||TI CPI rank:||81 out of 180 (2017)|
|GDP:||42.69 billion US$ (2016)||Score:||40/100 (2017)|
The Alliance for Integrity has been active in Ghana since 2015 and its office is located in Accra, where most headquarters of companies and organisations can be found. By working closely with existing initiatives, the initiative is committed to promote best practice examples, to foster collective action and to increase integrity in the economic system.
A multi-stakeholder Advisory Group Ghana has been established in 2016. It comprises representatives of the following organisations:
Active Working Groups in Ghana: