Ghana is located in West Africa, has a population of around 28 million people and is classified as a low middle income country.
In the medium term, the economic outlook for Ghana is good, since the oil and gas export has led to an increased productivity. In the short term, however, Ghana faces significant challenges. According to data from the World Bank, GDP growth has de-clined significantly since 2013. 2016 saw the fifth consecutive year of decreasing GDP rates (from 14% in 2011 to 3.6% in 2016). In 2016, the service sector has the highest share of GDP (52.2%) followed by industry (28.2%), which mainly consists of mining, manufacturing and construction and agriculture (19.6%). With around 5.8% in 2017, Ghana has a relatively low unemployment rate. However, some 80 % of the employment is generated in the informal sector.
The Corruption Perception Index of 2017, where Ghana ranked 81th out of 180 countries. This marks a significant increase of perceived corruption in comparison to the previous year. According to the Global Corruption Barometer 2017, a survey conducted by Transparency International and the Afrobarometer, petty corruption in the public sector is still a major problem in Ghana. The majority (64%) of Ghanaians believe that corruption has increased over the past year.
Ghana has ratified the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC), the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption and the ECOWAS Protocol on the Fight Against Corruption (ECOWAS Protocol), which was adopted at the regional and sub-regional levels respectively. In 1993, the Commis-sion on Human Rights and Administrative Justice (CHRAJ) was established. It is assigned with investigating alleged violations of human rights, including corruption of public officials and with taking action to remedy proven violations. The Economic and Organised Crime Office (EOCO) is the second main anti-corruption body in Ghana and is in charge of monitoring and investigating economic and organised crime, and - on the authority of the Attorney general – of prosecuting such offences. The latest initiative is the National Anti-Corruption Action Plan 2012-2021 (NACAP) which comprises Ghana’s national framework to determine anti-corruption activities. Thanks to the incorporation of the NACAP into national development planning, the plan is an integral part of the regular annual activities of public institutions. It also includes activities in the private sector, which are carried out by the Private Enter-prise Foundation (PEF).
In order to fight the complicated bureaucracy and institutional bottlenecks, which according to Transparency International represents a huge risk for corruption, the Ghanaian Parliament established the Office of the Special Prosecutor in 2018. As a specialized agency, the new Office investigates specific cases of corruption involv-ing public officers, politically-exposed persons as well as individuals in the private sector implicated in corrupt practices and to prosecute these offences on the authori-ty of the Attorney-General. Furthermore, the monopoly of prosecutorial authority by an Attorney-General, who is hired and fired by the President, has been singled out by governance experts as one of the key factors that stand in the way of using law enforcement and prosecution as a credible tool in the fight against corruption.
|Population:||28 million inhabitants||GDP per capita:||1,513.5 US$ (2016)|
|Form of government:||Presidential democracy||TI CPI rank:||81 out of 180 (2017)|
|GDP:||42.69 billion US$ (2016)||Score:||40/100 (2017)|
The Alliance for Integrity has been active in Ghana since 2015 and its office is lo-cated in Accra, where most headquarters of companies and organisations can be found. By working closely with existing initiatives, the multi-stakeholder initiative is committed to promote best practice examples, to foster collective action and to in-crease integrity in the economic system.
In April 2016 the Advisory Group Ghana was established. It comprises representatives of the following organisations: